Measures of economic, material, or financial hardship capture the difficulties—general or domain specific (e.g., food, housing)—in meeting financial obligations with current financial resources.
Starrin B, Åslund C, Nilsson KW. Financial stress, shaming experiences and psychosocial ill-health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model. Social Indicators Research. 2008;91(2):283-298.
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.75
If you suddenly ended up in an unforeseen situation where you have to raise $2,000, would you be able to?
Shek DTL. Economic stress, emotional quality of life, and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage. Social Indicators Research. 2005;71:363-383.
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.63 (Fathers)
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.57 (Mothers)
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.71 (Adolescents)
In the past six months, has your family had inadequate money to cope with the family expenses?
In the past six months, has your family delayed the payment of bills because of financial difficulty?
What has been the economic condition of your family in the past six months?
- No financial difficulty
- Some financial difficulty
- Considerable financial difficulty
- Much difficulty
How do you feel about the financial situation of your family?
- Has improved
- No change
- Has deteriorated
Weckström S. Self-assessed consequences of unemployment on individual wellbeing and family relationships: A study of unemployed women and men in Finland. International Journal of Social Welfare. 2011;21(4):372-383.
Cronbach's alpha = 0.84
Have you or your family had difficulties in paying running costs, such as food and rent, during the past year?
Which of the following five statements describes your financial situation during the past year?
- I have been able to purchase everything I want and need without difficulties.
- I have been able to purchase almost all I want and need.
- I have been forced to give up some non-essential needs.
- I have even been forced to give up some essential needs.
- I have been forced to give up everything.
How easy or difficult is it to maintain the subsistence of your family these days?
- Very difficult
- Very easy
Giannetti C, Madia M, Moretti L. Job insecurity and financial distress. Applied Financial Economics. 2014;24(4):219-233.
Is your household's income sufficient to see you through to the end of the month?
- With great difficulty
- With difficulty
- With some difficulty
- Fairly easily
- Very easily