Income Volatility/Economic Losses
Measures of income volatility/economic losses capture the experience of a reduction of financial resources (e.g., income) or inconsistently receiving financial resources.
Parke RD, Coltrane S, Duffy S, et al. Economic stress, parenting, and child adjustment in Mexican American and European American families. Child Development. 2004;75(6):1632-1656.
Reports from mothers and fathers were correlated:
r = 0.32 (European American)
r = 0.52 (Mexican American)
During the last year, have you or your spouse:
|Changed jobs for a worse one||o||o|
|Experienced negative work changes (e.g., demotions)||o||o|
|Been laid off or dismissed||o||o|
|Had any other involuntary loss of work (e.g., reduction in hours)||o||o|
Zemore SE, Mulia N, Jones-Webb RJ, et al. The 2008–2009 recession and alcohol outcomes: Differential exposure and vulnerability for Black and Latino populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 2013;74(1):9-20.
“All items were associated with a seven-category measure of annual household income, supporting their validity (p values < .001).” (pg 11 in Zemore, et al, 2013)
Did you or anyone in your household:
|Lose a job||o||o|
|Lose their housing (either owned or rented)||o||o|
|Have their hours or pay reduced at work||o||o|
|Have trouble paying the rent or mortgage||o||o|
Prochnow JE, Defronzo JV. The impact of economic and parental characteristics on juvenile misconduct. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 1997;5(2):119-124.
During the last few years, your financial situation has:
- Got better
- Stayed the same
- Got worse